There are three types of Hajj:

1- Hajj At-Tamattu’ 

2- Hajj Al-Qiraan 

3- Hajj Al-Ifraad.

Here, we shall talk about Hajj At-Tamattu’ as it is the most recommended one.

In this type of Hajj, one is to perform ‘Umrah during the Hajj months (i.e. Shawwaal, Thul-Qa’dah and the first nine days of Thul-Hijjah) and to perform the Hajj in the same year with a sacrifice slaughtered in Mina on the day of ‘Eed Al-Adh-Haa (The 10th day of Thul-Hijjah) or during the days of At-Tashreeq (i.e. the 11th, 12th and 13th of Thul-Hijjah). The pilgrimage may remove his Ihraam garments and continue his normal activities between ‘Umrah and Hajj. It is necessary to make the Tawaaf and the Sa’y twice, the first time for ‘Umrah and the second time for Hajj.  

The different steps of the Hajj journey are described below:


Ihraam is the intention of the person willing to perform all rites of ‘Umrah, Hajj or both when he arrives at the Meeqaat.

Each direction coming into Makkah has its own Meeqaat. It is recommended that the one who intends to perform Hajj makes Ghusl (a shower with the intention to purify one’s self and to be ready for Hajj), perfumes his body, but not his garments, and puts on a two- piece garment with no headgear. The garments should be of seamless cloth; one piece to cover the upper part of the body, and the second to cover the lower part. For a woman, the Ihraam is the same except that she can wear any kind of wide garments, should not use perfumes at all and her dress should cover the whole body decently, leaving the hands and the face uncovered. (A woman who is accustomed to wear the veil over her face is allowed to cover her face with a thin cloth without tying it, in other words, something light and different from her regular veil.) The pilgrim should say the intention according to the type of Hajj. For Hajj At-Tamattu’ one should say: “Labbayaka Allaahumma ‘Umrah” which means: “O Allaah, I answered your call to perform ‘Umrah”. It is recommended to repeat the well-known supplication of Hajj, called Talbiyah, as frequently as possible from the time of Ihraam till the time of the first stoning of Jamrat Al-‘Aqabah in Mina on the tenth day of Thul Hijjah.

Men are recommended to utter the Talbiyah aloud while women are to say it quietly. This Talbiyah is the following: “Labbayka Allaahumma labbayk. labbayka la shareeka laka labbayk. Innal-hamda wan-ni’mata laka walmulk. La shareeka lak.” which means:   “Here I am at Your service. O my Lord, Here I am. No partner You have. Here I am. Truly, the Praise and the bounties are Yours, and so is the Dominion. No partner You have”


When a Muslim arrives in Makkah, he should make Tawaaf around the Ka’bah, as a gesture of greeting Al-Masjid Al Haraam. This is done by circling the Ka’bah seven times in the counterclockwise direction, starting from the black stone with Takbeer and ending each circle at the black stone with Takbeer, keeping the Ka’bah to one’s left.

Then the pilgrim goes to Maqaam Ibraaheem and performs two Rak’ahs behind it, (close to it if possible), but away from the path of the people making Tawaaf.  In all cases one should be facing the Ka’bah when praying behind Maqaam Ibraaheem.


The next rite is to make Sa’y between As-Safa and Al-Marwah.  The pilgrim starts Sa’y by ascending As-Safa.  While facing the direction of the Ka’ba, he praises Allaah, raises his hands and says Takbeer “Allaahu-Akbar” three times, then supplicates Allaah.  Then the pilgrim descends from As-Safa and heads towards Al-Marwah.

One should increase the pace between the clearly marked green posts, but should walk at a normal pace before and after them. When the pilgrim reaches Al-Marwah, he should ascend it, praise Allaah and do as he did at As-Safa. This is considered one round, and so is the other way from Al-Marwah to As-Safa.  A total of seven rounds are required to perform the Sa’y.


Shaving the Head or Trimming the Hair:

 After Sa’y, the pilgrim ends his ‘Umrah rites by shaving his head or trimming his hair (women should cut a finger tip’s length from their hair).   At this stage, the prohibitions pertaining to the state of Ihraam are lifted and one can resume his normal life.

There are no required supplications for Tawaaf or for Sa’y.  It is up to the worshipper to praise Allaah or to supplicate Him with any acceptable supplication or to recite verses of the Quran. 

A Pilgrim performing Hajj At-Tamatt’u should intend Ihraam from the place where he is staying on the eighth of Thul-Hijjah (the Day of At-Tarwiyah) and it is better to leave for Mina in the morning.  In Mina, the pilgrims pray Thuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib and ‘Ishaa’ of the 8th day of Thul-Hijjah and Fajr of the 9th day of Thul-Hijja (Arafah Day).  Thuhr, ‘Asr and ‘Ishaa’ are each shortened to two Rak’ahs only, but are not combined.

The pilgrims remain in Mina until sunrise of the 9th day of Thul-Hijjah and then leave for ‘Arafaat.

  Departure to ‘Arafaat:

On the 9th day of Thul-Hijjah, the Day of ‘Arafah, the pilgrims stay in ‘Arafaat until sunset. It is preferable to pray Thuhr and ‘Asr at ‘Arafaat, shortened and combined during the time of Thuhr to save the rest of the day for glorifying Allaah and for supplication and asking forgiveness.  A pilgrim should make sure that he is within the boundaries of ‘Arafaat, not necessarily standing on the mountain of ‘Arafah, he should also be sure that he has spent any part of the night –even a few minutes-within ‘Arafaat.  The Prophet sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam said:  “I stood here on this rocky hill and all ‘Arafaat is a standing place” [Muslim]. 

One should keep reciting Talbiyah, glorifying Allaah, The Most Exalted, and repeating supplication.

It is also reported that the Prophet sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam used to say the following supplication:  “There is no deity worthy of worship except Allaah, the One without a partner.  The Dominion and the Praise are His and He is powerful over everything”.  Anas Ibn Maalik may Allaah be pleased with him was asked once how he and his friends used to spend their time while walking from Mina to ‘Arafaat in the company of the Prophet sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam.  He said: “Some of us used to cry out Talbiyah, others used to glorify Allaah, The Most Exalted, and the rest used to repeat supplications.  Each one of us was free to worship Allaah in the way he likes without prejudice or renunciation of his right”.  [Al-Bukhaari]

In the vast plain of ‘Arafaat, tears are shed, sins are washed and faults are redressed for those who ask Allaah for forgiveness and offer sincere repentance for their wrong doings in the past.  Happy is the person who receives the Mercy and Pleasure of Allaah on that particular day.


Soon after sunset on the day of ‘Arafah, the pilgrims leave for Muzdalifah quietly and reverently in compliance with the advice of the Prophet sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam who said when he noticed people walking without calmness: “O people! Be quiet, hastening is not a sign of righteousness”.  [Al-Bukhaari]

To follow the example of the Prophet sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, keep reciting the Talbiyah, glorifying Allaah and mentioning the name of Allaah until the time of stoning Jamrat Al-‘Aqabah, Al-Jamratul-Kubra (a stone pillar in Mina).  In Muzdalifah, the pilgrim performs Maghrib and ‘Ishaa’ prayers combined, shortening the ‘Ishaa’ prayer to two Rak’ahs. 

Pilgrims stay overnight in Muzdalifah to perform the Fajr prayer and wait until the brightness of the morning is widespread before they leave for Mina passing through the sacred Mash’ar Al Haram valley.   Women and weak individuals are allowed to proceed to Mina at any time after Midnight to avoid the crowd.


  Back to Mina:


Stoning Jamrat Al-‘Aqabah:   

When the pilgrims arrive in Mina, they go to Jamrat Al-‘Aqabah where they stone it with seven pebbles, saying Takbeer at each throw and calling on Allaah Almighty to accept their Hajj.  The time of stoning Jamrat Al-‘Aqabah is after sunrise.  The Prophet sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam threw the pebbles late in the morning and permitted the weak people to stone after leaving Muzdalifah after Midnight.  The size of the pebbles should not be more than that of a pea as described by the Prophet sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam who warned against exaggeration.  The pebbles can be picked up either in Muzdalifah or in Mina.  


Slaughter of Sacrifice:

After stoning Jamrat Al-‘Aqabah, the pilgrim goes to slaughter his sacrifice either personally or through the appointment of somebody else to do it on his behalf.  A pilgrim should slaughter either a sheep, or share a cow or a camel with six others.

Shaving the Head or Trimming the Hair:

The final rite on the tenth day after offering one’s sacrifice is to shave his head or to cut some of the hair.  Shaving the head is, however, preferable for it was reported that the Prophet sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam prayed three times for those who shaved their heads, when he sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam said:  “May Allaah’s Mercy be upon those who shaved their heads”.  [Al-Bukhaari and Muslim] 

For women, the length of hair to be cut is that of a fingertip.  The stoning of Jamrat Al-‘Aqabah and the shaving of head or the trimming of hair symbolizes the end of the first phase of the state of Ihraam and the lifting of its restrictions except for sexual intercourse with one’s spouse.

Stoning Jamrat Al-‘Aqabah, slaughtering the sacrifice and shaving the head or cutting part of the hair are preferred to be in this order, as it is the order that the Prophet sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam did them.  However, if they are done in any order, there is no harm in that

Tawaaf Al-Ifaadhah:

Tawaaf Al-Ifaadhah is a fundamental rite of Hajj.  The pilgrim makes Tawaaf Al-Ifaadhah by visiting Al-Masjid Al-Haraam and circling the Ka’bah seven times and praying two Rak’ahs behind Maqaam Ibraaheem if possible and without causing any harm to Muslims.  Then the pilgrim should make Sa’y between As-Safa and Al-Marwah.   After Tawaaf Al-Ifaadhah the state of Ihraam is completely ended and all restrictions are lifted including sexual intercourse with one’s spouse.  Tawaaf Al-Ifaadhah can be delayed until the days spent in Mina are over. 

The pilgrim should return to Mina and spend there the days of Tashreeq (i.e. the 11th, 12th and 13th of Thul-Hijjah).

During each day, and after Thuhr prayer until the midnight, the pilgrim stones the three stone pillars called “Jamraat”: The smaller, the medium and Jamrat Al-‘Aqabah, saying Takbeer with each throw of the seven pebbles stoned at each pillar.

These pebbles are picked up in Mina.  A pilgrim may leave Mina to Makkah on the 13th of Thul-Hijjah or on the 12th if he wishes, there is no blame on him if he chooses the latter, but he has to leave before sunset; if not, he must stay in Mina till he throws the pebbles the next day (13th).

Farewell Tawaaf:

 Farewell Tawaaf is the final rite of Hajj.  It is to make another Tawaaf around the Ka’bah.  Ibn Abbaas may Allaah be pleased with them said: “The people were ordered to perform the Tawaaf around the Ka’bah as the last thing before leaving Makkah, except the menstruating women who were excused.”  [Al-Bukhaari

 Restrictions for a person in the state of Ihraam -II

 Clipping nails, shaving, cutting or removing hair:

This is restricted regardless of the means with which they are done, and regarding the hair, then the restriction applies whether it is from the head or any other part of the body.

Allaah Says (what means): “And do not shave your heads until the Hady (offering) reaches the place of sacrifice…” [Quran 2:196]

In such a case, one must pay atonement, which is fasting three days, or feeding six poor people with a Mudd (750 gm) of fine wheat each, or slaughtering a sheep.

There is consensus among the scholars that a person in the state of Ihraam is forbidden to clip his fingernails without any genuine excuse. However, if a nail is broken, one may remove it without incurring any penalty. Removing the hair is permitted, if it becomes harmful.

Using perfume on the body or clothes:

This applies whether done by a man or a woman. Ibn ‘Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him, reported that ‘Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him, smelled the pleasant smell of perfume coming from Mu’aawiyah, may Allaah be pleased with him, while the latter was in the state of Ihraam. ‘Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him, commanded him: “Get back, and wash it off. I have heard the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, saying: “A pilgrim must be unkempt and without any perfume.” [Al-Bazzaar]

 The one who applies perfume during Ihraam has to make a compensation, which is fasting three days, or feeding six poor people with a Mudd of fine wheat each, or slaughtering a sheep.

 It is permissible, however, to smell the things that are not planted for their scent such as apples and quince.


Wearing clothes dyed with scented material:

There is agreement among scholars that wearing a Hajj garb dyed with a scented material is not allowed unless it is washed and its smell is removed. The Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, said: “Do not wear (while in the state of Ihraam) any clothes dyed with warse or saffron without washing them.” [Ibn ‘Abdul-Barr and At-Tahaawi]

The one who wears clothes dyed with scented material while being in the state of Ihraam has to compensate by fasting three days, or feeding six poor people with a Mudd (750 grams) of fine wheat each, or slaughtering a sheep.

 Engaging in hunting:

A person in the state of Ihraam may fish or eat sea game. It is forbidden, however, for a person in the state of Ihraam to hunt on land, by killing or by slaughtering. It is also forbidden for him to point it out, or indicate its place if it is invisible, or scare it off. It is also forbidden for him to spoil eggs of animals living on land. Buying, selling them, or milking these animals is also forbidden while in the state of Ihraam. Allaah Says (what means): “Lawful to you is (the pursuit) of water-game and its use for food – for the benefit of yourselves and those who travel, but forbidden is (the pursuit) of land game – as long as you are in a state of Ihraam (for Hajj or ‘Umrah). And fear Allaah to Whom you will be gathered back.” [Quran 5: 96]

In the case of killing a game animal, the penalty is to slaughter a domestic livestock animal (i.e. a camel, cows or sheep) equivalent to it.

Eating game-meat:

It is forbidden for a person in the state of Ihraam to partake of any land game prepared for his sake, at his suggestion or with his help. Abu Qataadah, may Allaah be pleased with him, reported that Allaah’ s Messenger, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, went for Hajj and they also went with him. The Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, dispatched a group, including Abu Qataadah, may Allaah be pleased with him, and told them: “Follow the seashore until we meet again.” All of them except Abu Qataadah, may Allaah be pleased with him, were in the state of Ihraam. On the way, they saw a herd of zebras. Abu Qataadah, may Allaah be pleased with him, attacked them and killed a female zebra. They all ate of its meat but said: “Is it permissible for us to partake of this land game in the state of Ihraam?” Then they carried the rest of the meat to the Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, and told him the whole story. The Prophet, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, said to them: ‘Did any one of you ask Abu Qataadah to attack the herd, or point it out to him?” They said: “No.” He, sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, said: “Then, you may eat what is left of the quarry.” [Al- Bukhaari and Muslim]

A person in the state of Ihraam may eat the meat of a game, which is neither killed by him, nor for him, nor pointed out by him to someone else, and in the hunting of which he did not help others.

The eating of a land game hunted by a person in the state of Ihraam or for another person in the state of Ihraam is unlawful for him, whether it is done with or without his permission.

I this case, the person must repent and seek Allaah’s forgiveness. There’s nothing reported from Sunnah that has made any expiation for them other than repentance and seeking Allaah’s forgiveness.  

However, if someone else who is not in the state of Ihraam, hunted it for himself, and offered or sold some of it to a person in the state of Ihraam, he is permitted to eat of it

Characteristic Marks in the Holy Mosque 

Many characteristic marks at the Holy Mosque in Makkah have great historical as well as spiritual value to Muslims, as they are related to the holiness of Islamic religion and strong commitment in following the guidelines set down by the Prophet and messenger of Allah. The marks date back to the original building of the holy Kabah as translated from the Quran:

“ Behold! We gave the site, To Abraham, of the (Sacred) House”, Al Hajj, 26

The Holy Kabah 

The Qaran refers to Makkah and the Holy Mosque in the translation:

“The first sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Bakka a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples” Ali’Imran, 96

Accordingly, Abraham and his son Ishmael built the Kabah. Later through the decades the Kabah was rebuilt various times through history but always by maintaining the original stonework and dimensions. The Kabah has a great role in Islam, being the vocal point of all prayers as well as a destination for worship and devotion. As translated from the Quran:


“Allah hath appointed the Kabah, the Sacred House, a standard for mankind”  Al maidah, 97


The Kabah is nearly in the middle of the Holy Mosque as it was built through the centuries around this most holy of sites, in the shape of a big, high square room with a height of 15 meters. The door is at its eastern wall, two meters above the ground is made of solid gold but has changed throughout history. The four corners of Kabah are the black corner, the Shami corner (referring to the most northeastern corner), the Yamani corner (the southwestern corner) and the Iraqi corner. At the top of the northern wall, there is the Mizab, A water drain element which is made of pure gold, dominating the stone of Ishmael.

 Black Stone

located at the southeastern part of Kabah, a sign of divine grace. It is a heavy oval stone, of black reddish color. Its diameter is 30 cm, surrounded with a silver frame. The circler is required to kiss the black stone if possible. It is told that Messenger (peace of Allah be upon him) said, “the stone and the station of Abraham are two bequeathed from paradise, but Allah obliterated their light, otherwise they would have lit between east and west”. He also said, “when the black stone was lowered from paradise, it was whiter than milk, but the sins of humans made it black”.

Station of Abraham (Maqam lbraheem)

It is the stone upon which Abraham (may Allah be please with him) was standing while he was building the Kabah. It is circled with silver. the trace of footprints is clear in the stone. The late King Faisal Bin Abd AI-Aziz  ordered to make a crystal glass cover, surpassed by an iron framework, with a marble foundation around the Maqam. Allah says in the Quran (translated):

“And take ye the Station Of Abraham as a place Of prayer” Albaqarah

Stone of Ishmael

It is the space to the north of Kabah under the Mizab. It is paved in marble as well as being enclosed by a marble parapet. The stone was originally a portion of the Kabah when Abraham originaly built it, but when Quraish (the historic tribe rulers of Makkah rebuilt it during their era they left the stone out, accordingly, it is a part of the Holy Kabah.

AI Multazem 

It is between the black stone and the door of Kabah. AI Multzem, the Arabic word, means the thing at which people attach and supplicate. Ibn Abbas told that he heard Messenger (peace of Allah be up upon him) saying, “Any, who ask Allah at AI Multazem, Allah would reward him”.


Historically Abraham was ordered to leave his wife Hajer and child Ishmael in a valley without any vegetation or water at the site of his sacred house before the building of the Kabah promising to provide for them. As Ishmael cried in thirst Hajer ran from a small rise to another (safa and marwah) in the hope that a mirage of water was real. Allah then broke forth a spring at the feet of the crying baby now know as the well of Zamzam. ZamZam well is located under the Tawaf area. Many prophetic traditions (Hadeeths) referred to the superiority of Zamzam water, such as:

” The best water on the earth is Zamzam”.

” It is blessed, for drinking and for curing”.
“It is a cure for what it is drunk for”.

It is told that Abdulallah Bin Abbas, when drinking from Zamzam, used to say,

“O Allah, I ask you a useful knowledge, a Luxurious living, and a cure for all diseases”.

Safa, Marwah and saiy 

As stated in the former section the origin of this Muslim ritual called “Saiy” was based on Ishmael’s mothers search for water for her son. Safa is the rocky hill from which “Saiy” starts, and Marwah is the rocky hill at which “Saiy” ends. It is mentioned in Holy Quran that they are of Allah’s rituals; accordingly, they have a great importance to Muslims. It is translated that Allah, says in the Quran:

 “Lo! (the mountains) As-Safa and Al-Marwah are among the indications of Allah. It is therefore no sin for him who is on pilgrimage to the House (of God) or visiteth it, to go around them” Al Baqarah, 158

 Previously, Safa and Marwah were out of the Holy Mosque, when the Saudi expansion began, the path of saiy was entered within the Holy Mosque. It is 395 meters long and 20 meters wide with a number of doors opening on to it. The original shape of the Safa and Marwah was maintained as it was.

  Yemeni Corner (AI Rukn AI Yamani)

It is one of the Holy Kabah’s corners, towards southwest direction. It is the corner that is parallel the eastern corner, in which the black stone is located. The Yemeni corner is touched but not kissed. It called by this name because it’s faces towards the south towards Yemen.

  A Historical Look at the Kiswah (the Kabah Drapes or covering)

 The Kiswah  has a interesting history through different eras. Some scholars argue that the first Kiswa was made by the Prophet Ishmael. It is mentioned by others that the first Kiswa was made by Adnan bin Ad, a great great- grandfather of the Prophet Mohamed (peace be upon him). But, most sources agree that Tub’a. King of Humayyur in Yemen was the first to start this tradition. After that, many others draped the Kabah during the pre-Islam period.
It is told, in the pre-Islam period, that Abu Rabia’h Bin Amro AI Makhzoumi was a very rich man, and he said to Quraish (the ruling tribe of Makkah) that he would drape the Kabah one year, and Quraish would drape it in the next year. Quraish agreed, and the story says that he continued to drape the Kabah until his death.

  Kiswah in the reign of Messenger (peace of Allah be upon him) and orthodox caliphs

 The Messenger (peace of Allah be upon him) and Muslims did not participate in draping the Kabah before taking of Makkah, as Quraish did not allow them to do so. When Makkah was taken, The Messenger (Peace of Allah be upon him) left the Kiswa as it is, until it was burned accidentally when a women was fumigating the Kabah. Messenger then draped the Kabah with Yemeni cloth. After him, the orthodox caliphs draped it

 Kiswah after the Orthodox caliphs until the Saudi reign

 Caliph Muawiyah used to dress the Kabah twice a year, then Yazid Bin Muawiyah, Ibn AI Zubair, and Abd AI Malik Bin Murwan all dressed is with silk covering. At one time, it had become a custom that the old Kiswah was not removed, the new one being put on top of the old. This continued until the reign of Mahdi, the Abbasid Caliph. When he performed Hajj in 160 AH, he saw that the accumulated Kiswah could cause damage to Kabah itself. He therefore decreed that only one Kiswah should drape the Kabah at any one time, and this had been observed ever since.

The Caliph AI Mamoon, dressed the Kabah three times a year, with a red braced Kiswah on the eighth of Zu AI Hijjah, with white gabati on the first of Rajab, and with red brocade Kiswah on the twenty-ninth of Ramadan. After that, AI Nasir the Abbaside, dressed the Kabah in green. Caliph AI Nasir decided after that to change the color into black, and black it remains to this day
The variegated drape (sitarah), which is hanged on the front side of the kaabah, was introduced in 810 AH. Between 816 and 818, this hanging drape was stopped, then it began again in 819 AH, and it is still being hanged until now.

 Kiswah in the Saudi Reign

 His highness, King Abd AI Aziz Bin Saud, with concern for the custody of the two holy Mosques, ordered the building of a special factoy for manufacturing the Kiswah, and in the same year, the Holy Kabah Kiswah factory was founded, and the first Kiswah was produced.
The Kiswah continued to be made in Makkah for the next ten years. In order to make this work better, King Faisal ordered in the year 1382 AH the renewal of the Kiswah factory, and in the year 1397 AH, the new building was opened at Um AI Joud.


Description of the Kiswah of the Holy Kabah

The Kiswah is woven from pure natural silk, which is dyed black. The sentences “La Ilah Ila Allah , Mohamed Rasoul Allah”. “Allah Jala Jalal’h”, “Subhan Allah wa bihamdih”, “Subhan Allah A1 Azeem”, “Ya hanan”, “Ya Manan” are improdered on the black silk in thread of gold. The Kiswah is made up of 41 pieces. Each piece is 14 meters long and 95 cm wide. The wide belt, 45 meters long and 95 cm wide, comprises 16 parts.

The “Ikhlas Sura” from the Holy Quran is embroidered in gold as circles on the four corners.
These circles are surrounded with squares of Islamic decorations. Under the belt, there are also 6 verses of Holy Quran, each of them inside a separated form.
The drapes (Sitara) of the Kaabah door, which is called the Burqu’a, is made of the same black silk material, and it is 6.5 meter in height and 3.5 meters in width. The border and drapes are embroidered with silver threads covered with gold. The whole Kiswah is lined with a thick material of cotton